Parents were more satisfied and children were more well-adjusted when labor involved in child care was more evenly distributed between the parents. Participating children averaged 7 years of age. Adolescents of the U. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal meet other gay singles factors influenced this association.
Scientific research that has directly compared outcomes for children with gay and lesbian parents with outcomes for children with heterosexual parents has found that children raised by same-sex couples are as physically or psychologically healthy, capable, and successful as those raised by Our review shows that research on lesbian and gay families couples,    despite the reality that considerable legal discrimination and inequity remain significant challenges for Our review shows that research on lesbian and gay families families.
The courts ruled that "the applicant's transsexuality, in itself, without further evidence, would not constitute a material change in circumstances, nor would it be considered a negative factor in custody determination," marking a landmark case in family law whereby "a person's transsexuality is irrelevant on its own as a factor in his or her ability to be a good parent"  Additionally, Jay Wallace, a resident trans-man from Toronto, Canada, "was permitted to identify as Stanley's father on the province of Ontario's Statement of Live Birth Form," marking a decoupling of genetics and bio-sex in relation to parental roles.
Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported better school adjustment.
Within the NLLFS sample, adolescents who reported stigmatization scored higher on affective, anxiety, and conduct problems. Fifty families were headed by couples and 30 by single parents. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers.
It should be acknowledged that research on lesbian and gay parents and their children, though no longer new, is still limited in extent. Families of the Lesbian baby boom: Maternal mental health and child adjustment.
Some men donate sperm for humanitarian reasons, others for money or both. A surrogate is a woman carrying an egg fertilised by sperm of one of the men. But several studies indicate the numbers of children with same-sex parents in America are significant.
Mothers were interviewed and given clinical questionnaires during pregnancy and when their children were 2, 5, 10, and 17 years of age. A review of studies from to ". Although many important research questions have yet to be addressed, the results of all reviewed studies were unanimous; none of the investigations could identify an adverse effect of lesbian motherhood on child development.